Opioids (Morphine and other agents)

Morphine and other opioids should not be used in children who have amplified musculoskeletal pain syndromes. It has led to deaths. A Cochrane systematic review concluded that in adults with neuropathic pain there was only equivocal evidence of efficacy.  There is a risk for opioid and other drug addiction in those who use these medications.

  1. McNicol ED, Midbari A, Eisenberg E. Opioids for neuropathic pain. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 2013;8:Cd006146

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